AskDefine | Define Ethiopia

Dictionary Definition

Ethiopia n : Ethiopia is a republic in northeastern Africa on the Red Sea; formerly called Abyssinia [syn: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Yaltopya, Abyssinia]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Alternative spellings

Etymology

From (Aithiopia) < (Aithiops) "charred complexion" < (aithō) "I burn" + (ōps) "eye, face, complexion".

Proper noun

Ethiopia
  1. Country in Eastern Africa. Official name: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.

Translations

See also

Extensive Definition

Ethiopia () (Ge'ez: ኢትዮጵያ ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country situated in the Horn of Africa. Ethiopia is bordered by Eritrea to the north, Sudan to the west, Kenya to the south, Somalia to the south-east and Djibouti to the north-east.
Ethiopia is one of the oldest countries in the world and Africa's second-most populous nation. Ethiopia has yielded some of humanity's oldest traces, making the area important in the history of human evolution. Recent studies claim that the vicinity of present-day Addis Ababa was the point from which human beings migrated around the world. Ethiopian dynastic history traditionally began with the reign of Emperor Menelik I in 1000 BC. The roots of the Ethiopian state are similarly deep, dating with unbroken continuity to at least the Aksumite Empire (which adopted the name "Ethiopia" in the 4th century) and its predecessor state, D`mt (with early 1st millennium BC roots). After a period of decentralized power in the 18th and early 19th centuries known as the Zemene Mesafint ("Era of the Judges/Princes"), the country was reunited in 1855 by Kassa Hailu, who became Emperor Tewodros II, beginning Ethiopia's modern history. Ethiopia's borders underwent significant territorial expansion to its modern borders for the rest of the century, especially by Emperor Menelik II and Ras Gobena, culminating in its victory over the Italians at the Battle of Adwa in 1896 with the military leadership of Ras Makonnen, and ensuring its sovereignty and freedom from colonization. It was brutally occupied by Mussolini's Italy from 1936 to 1941, ending with its liberation by British Empire and Ethiopian Patriot forces.
Having converted during the fourth century AD, it is also the second-oldest country to become officially Christian, after Armenia. Since 1974, it has been secular and has also had a considerable Muslim community since the earliest days of Islam. Historically a relatively isolated mountain country, Ethiopia by the mid 20th century became a crossroads of global international cooperation. It became a member of the League of Nations in 1923, signed the Declaration by United Nations in 1942, and was one of the fifty-one original members of the United Nations (UN). The headquarters of United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) is in Addis Ababa, as is the headquarters of the African Union (formerly the Organisation of African Unity), of which Ethiopia was the principal founder. There are about forty-five Ethiopian embassies and consulates around the world.

Name

It is not certain how old the name Ethiopia is; its earliest attested use is in the Iliad where it appears twice (and three times in the Odyssey). The earliest attested use in the region is as a Christianized name for the Kingdom of Aksum in the 4th century, in stone inscriptions of King Ezana. The Ge'ez name , and its English cognate, are thought by some recent scholars to be derived from the Greek word Aithiopia, from Aithiops ‘an Ethiopian’, derived in turn from Greek words meaning "of burned face". However, the Book of Aksum, a Ge'ez chronicle compiled in the 15th century, states that the name is derived from "'Ityopp'is" — a son (unmentioned in the Bible) of Cush, son of Ham who according to legend founded the city of Axum. Pliny the Elder similarly states the tradition that the nation took its name from someone named Aethiops. A third etymology, suggested by the late Ethiopian scholar and poet laureate Tsegaye Gabre-Medhin, traces the name to the "old black Egyptian [sic]" words Et (Truth or Peace) Op (high or upper) and Bia (land, country), or "land of higher peace".
In English and generally outside of Ethiopia, the country was also once historically known as Abyssinia, derived from Habesh, an early Arabic form of the Ethiosemitic name "Ḥabaśāt" (unvocalized "ḤBŚT"), modern Habesha, the native name for the country's inhabitants (while the country was called "Ityopp'ya"). In a few languages, Ethiopia is still called by names cognate with "Abyssinia," e.g., and modern Arabic Al Habeshah, meaning land of the Habesha people. The term Habesha, strictly speaking, refers only to the Amhara and Tigray-Tigrinya people who have historically dominated the country politically, and which combined comprise about 36% of Ethiopia's population. However, in contemporary Ethiopian politics, the word Habesha is often used to describe all Ethiopians and Eritreans. Abyssinia can strictly refer to just the North-Western Ethiopian provinces of Amhara and Tigray as well as central Eritrea, while it was historically used as another name for Ethiopia.

History

Early history

Human settlement in Ethiopia dates back to ancient times. Fossilized remains of the earliest ancestors to the human species, discovered in Ethiopia, have been assigned dates as long ago as 5.9 million years. Together with Eritrea and the southeastern part of the Red Sea coast of Sudan (Beja lands), it is considered the most likely location of the land known to the ancient Egyptians as Punt (or "Ta Netjeru," meaning land of the Gods), whose first mention dates to the twenty-fifth century BC.
Around the eighth century BC, a kingdom known as Dʿmt was established in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea, with its capital at Yeha in northern Ethiopia. Most modern historians consider this civilization to be a native African one, although Sabaean-influenced due to the latter's hegemony of the Red Sea, while others view Dʿmt as the result of a mixture of "culturally superior" Sabaeans and indigenous peoples. However, Ge'ez, the ancient Semitic language of Ethiopia, is now thought not to have derived from Sabaean (also South Semitic). There is evidence of a Semitic-speaking presence in Ethiopia and Eritrea at least as early as 2000 BC. Sabaean influence is now thought to have been minor, limited to a few localities, and disappearing after a few decades or a century, perhaps representing a trading or military colony in some sort of symbiosis or military alliance with the Ethiopian civilization of Dʿmt or some other proto-Aksumite state.
After the fall of Dʿmt in the fourth century BC, the plateau came to be dominated by smaller successor kingdoms, until the rise of one of these kingdoms during the first century BC, the Aksumite Kingdom, ancestor of medieval and modern Ethiopia, which was able to reunite the area. They established bases on the northern highlands of the Ethiopian Plateau and from there expanded southward. The Persian religious figure Mani listed Aksum with Rome, Persia, and China as one of the four great powers of his time.
In 316 AD, a Christian philosopher from Tyre, Meropius, embarked on a voyage of exploration along the coast of Africa. He was accompanied by, among others, two Syro-Greeks, Frumentius and his brother Aedesius. The vessel was stranded on the coast, and the natives killed all the travelers except the two brothers, who were taken to the court and given positions of trust by the monarch. They both practiced the Christian faith in private, and soon converted the queen and several other members of the royal court. Upon the king's death, Frumentius was appointed regent of the realm by the queen, and instructor of her young son, Prince Ezana. A few years later, upon Ezana's coming of age, Aedesius and Frumentius left the kingdom, the former returning to Tyre where he was ordained, and the latter journeying to Alexandria. Here, he consulted Athanasius, who ordained him and appointed him Bishop of Aksum. He returned to the court and baptized the King Ezana, together with many of his subjects, and in short order Christianity was proclaimed the official state religion again. For this accomplishment, he received the title "Abba Selama" ("Father of peace").
At various times, including a fifty-year period in the sixth century, Aksum controlled most of modern-day Yemen and some of southern Saudi Arabia just across the Red Sea, as well as controlling southern Egypt, northern Sudan, northern Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and northern Somalia.
The line of rulers descended from the Aksumite kings was broken several times: first by the Jewish (unknown/or pagan) Queen Gudit around 950 (or possibly around 850, as in Ethiopian histories). It was then interrupted by the Zagwe dynasty; it was during this dynasty that the famous rock-hewn churches of Lalibela were carved under King Lalibela, allowed by a long period of peace and stability.

Ethiopian Empire

Around 1270, the Solomonic dynasty came to control Ethiopia, claiming descent from the kings of Aksum. They called themselves Neguse Negest ("King of Kings," or Emperor), due to their direct descent from Solomon and the queen of Sheba.

Restored contact with Europe

In the early fifteenth century Ethiopia sought to make diplomatic contact with European kingdoms for the first time since Aksumite times. A letter from King Henry IV of England to the Emperor of Abyssinia survives. In 1428, the Emperor Yeshaq sent two emissaries to Alfons V of Aragon, who sent return emissaries that failed to complete the return trip. The first continuous relations with a European country began in 1508 with Portugal under Emperor Lebna Dengel, who had just inherited the throne from his father. The early twentieth century was marked by the reign of Emperor Haile Selassie I, who came to power after Iyasu V was deposed. It was he who undertook the modernization of Ethiopia, from 1916, when he was made a Ras and Regent (Inderase) for Zewditu I and became the de facto ruler of the Ethiopian Empire. Following Zewditu's death he was made Emperor on 2 November, 1930.
Being born from parents of the three main Ethiopian ethnicities of Oromo, Amhara and Gurage, and after having played a leading role in the formation of the African Union, Haile Selassie was known as a uniting figure both inside Ethiopia and around Africa.
The independence of Ethiopia was interrupted by the Second Italo-Abyssinian War and Italian occupation (1936–1941). Some of Ethiopia's infrastructure (roads most importantly) was built by the fascist Italian occupation troops (not by corvee) between 1937 and 1940. Following the entry of Italy into World War II, the British Empire forces together with patriot Ethiopian fighters liberated Ethiopia in the course of the East African Campaign (World War II) in 1941, which was followed by sovereignty on January 31, 1941 and British recognition of full sovereignty (i.e. without any special British privileges) with the signing of the Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement in December 1944. During 1942 and 1943 there was an Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia. On August 26, 1942 Haile Selassie I issued a proclamation outlawing slavery.
In 1952 Haile Selassie orchestrated the federation with Eritrea which he dissolved in 1962. This annexation sparked the Eritrean War of Independence. Although Haile Selassie was seen as a national and African hero, opinion within Ethiopia turned against him due to the worldwide oil crisis of 1973, food shortages, uncertainty regarding the succession, border wars, and discontent in the middle class created through modernization.
Haile Selassie's reign came to an end in 1974, when a Soviet backed Marxist-Leninist military junta, the "Derg" led by Mengistu Haile Mariam, deposed him, and established a one-party communist state.

Communism

The ensuing regime suffered several coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and a massive refugee problem. In 1977, there was the Ogaden War, but Ethiopia quickly defeated Somalia with a massive influx of Soviet military hardware and a Cuban military presence coupled with East Germany and South Yemen the following year.
Hundreds of thousands were killed due to the red terror, forced deportations, or from using hunger as a weapon. In 2006, after a long trial, Mengistu was found guilty of genocide.

Recent

In 1993 a referendum was held & supervised by the UN mission UNOVER, with universal suffrage and conducted both in and outside Eritrea (among Eritrean communities in the diaspora), on whether Eritreans wanted independence or unity with Ethiopia. Over 99% of the Eritrean people voted for independence which was declared on May 24, 1993. In 1994, a constitution was adopted that led to Ethiopia's first multi-party elections in the following year. In May 1998, a border dispute with Eritrea led to the Eritrean-Ethiopian War that lasted until June 2000. This has hurt the nation's economy, but strengthened the ruling coalition. On May 15, 2005, Ethiopia held another multiparty election, which was a highly disputed one with some opposition groups claiming fraud. Though the Carter center appreciated the preelection conditions, it has expressed its dissatisfaction with postelection matters. The 2005 EU election observers continued to accuse the ruling party of vote rigging. Many from the international community are divided about the issue with Irish officials accusing the 2005 EU election observers of corruption for the "inaccurate leaks from the 2005 EU election monitoring body which led the opposition to wrongly believe they had been cheated of victory." In general, the opposition parties gained more than 200 parliament seats compared to the just 12 in the 2000 elections. Despite most opposition representatives joining the parliament, some leaders of the CUD party are in jail following the post-election violence. Amnesty International considers them "prisoners of conscience".

Politics

Politics of Ethiopia takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament.
On the basis of Article 78 of the 1994 Ethiopian Constitution, the Judiciary is completely independent of the executive and the legislature. The current realities of this provision are questioned in a report prepared by Freedom House (see discussion page for link).
According to The Economist in its Democracy Index, Ethiopia is a "hybrid regime" situated between a "flawed democracy" and an "authoritarian regime". It ranks 106 out of 167 countries (with the larger number being less democratic). Cambodia ranks as more democratic at 105, and Burundi as less democratic at 107, than Ethiopia.
The election of Ethiopia's 547-member constituent assembly was held in June 1994. This assembly adopted the constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in December 1994. The elections for Ethiopia's first popularly-chosen national parliament and regional legislatures were held in May and June 1995 . Most opposition parties chose to boycott these elections. There was a landslide victory for the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). International and non-governmental observers concluded that opposition parties would have been able to participate had they chosen to do so.
The current government of Ethiopia was installed in August 1995. The first President was Negasso Gidada. The EPRDF-led government of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi promoted a policy of ethnic federalism, devolving significant powers to regional, ethnically-based authorities. Ethiopia today has nine semi-autonomous administrative regions that have the power to raise and spend their own revenues. Under the present government, some fundamental freedoms, including freedom of the press, are circumscribed. Citizens have little access to media other than the state-owned networks, and most private newspapers struggle to remain open and suffer periodic harassment from the government.
Zenawi's government was elected in 2000 in Ethiopia's first ever multiparty elections; however, the results were heavily criticized by international observers and denounced by the opposition as fraudulent. The EPRDF also won the 2005 election returning Zenawi to power. Although the opposition vote increased in the election, both the opposition and observers from the European Union and elsewhere stated that the vote did not meet international standards for fair and free elections. The government initiated a crackdown in the provinces as well; in Oromia state the authorities used concerns over insurgency and terrorism to use torture, imprisonment, and other repressive methods to silence critics following the election, particularly people sympathetic to the registered opposition party Oromo National Congress (ONC).), Ethiopia is the world's 27th-largest country (after Colombia). It is comparable in size to Bolivia, and is about two-thirds as large as the US state of Alaska.
The major portion of Ethiopia lies on the Horn of Africa, which is the eastern-most part of the African landmass. Bordering Ethiopia is Sudan to the west, Djibouti and Eritrea to the north, Somalia to the east, and Kenya to the south. Within Ethiopia is a massive highland complex of mountains and dissected plateaus divided by the Great Rift Valley, which runs generally southwest to northeast and is surrounded by lowlands, steppes, or semi-desert. The great diversity of terrain determines wide variations in climate, soils, natural vegetation, and settlement patterns.

Climate and landforms

Elevation and geographic location produce three climatic zones: the cool zone above 2,400 meters (7,900 ft) where temperatures range from near freezing to 16 °C (32 °–61 °F); the temperate zone at elevations of 1,500 to 2,400 meters (4,900–7,900 ft) with temperatures from 16 to 30 °C (61–86 °F); and the hot zone below 1,500 meters (4,900 ft) with both tropical and arid conditions and daytime temperatures ranging from 27 to 50 °C (81–122 °F). The topography of Ethiopia ranges from several very high mountain ranges (the Semien Mountains and the Bale Mountains), to one of the lowest areas of land in Africa, the Danakil depression. The normal rainy season is from mid-June to mid-September (longer in the southern highlands) preceded by intermittent showers from February or March; the remainder of the year is generally dry.
Ethiopia is an ecologically diverse country, ranging from the deserts along the eastern border to the tropical forests in the south to extensive Afromontane in the northern and southwestern parts. Lake Tana in the north is the source of the Blue Nile. It also has a large number of endemic species, notably the Gelada Baboon, the Walia Ibex and the Ethiopian wolf (or Simien fox). The wide range of altitude has given the country a variety of ecologically distinct areas, this has helped to encourage the evolution of endemic species in ecological isolation.

Deforestation

Deforestation is a major concern for Ethiopia as studies suggest loss of forest contributes to soil erosion, loss of nutrients in the soil, loss of animal habitats and reduction in biodiversity. At the beginning of the Twentieth century around 420,000 km² or 35% of Ethiopia’s land was covered by trees but recent research indicates that forest cover is now approximately 11.9% of the area. Ethiopia is one of the seven fundamental and independent centers of origin of cultivated plants of the world.
Ethiopia loses an estimated 1,410 km² of natural forests each year. Between 1990 and 2005 the country lost approximately 21,000 km².
Current government programs to control deforestation consist of education, promoting reforestation programs and providing alternate raw material to timber. In rural areas the government also provides non-timber fuel sources and access to non-forested land to promote agriculture without destroying forest habitat.
Organizations such as SOS and Farm Africa are working with the federal government and local governments to create a system of forest management. Working with a grant of approximately 2.3 million Euros the Ethiopian government recently began training people on reducing erosion and using proper irrigation techniques that do not contribute to deforestation. This project is assisting more than 80 communities.

Economy

see also Foreign aid to Ethiopia Ethiopia has had a fast growing annual GDP and it was the fastest growing non-oil dependent African nation in 2007. Since 1991, there have been attempts to improve the economy. This is reflected in the ten percent economic growth registered for the past six consecutive years. Yet, a daunting task of maintaining this growth and reducing urban poverty remains to be done.
Provision of telecommunications services is left to a publicly owned monopoly. It is the view of the current government that maintaining public ownership in this vital sector is essential to ensure that telecommunication infrastructures and services are extended to the rural Ethiopia, which would not be attractive to private enterprises.
There are some sectors which are reserved to Ethiopians only. The financial sector is one of them. There are now more than seven private banks in the country but none of them are owned by foreigners.
The Ethiopian constitution defines the right to own land as belonging only to "the state and the people", but citizens may only lease land (up to 99 years), and are unable to mortgage or sell. Renting of land for a maximum of twenty years is allowed and this is expected to ensure that land goes to the most productive user.
Agriculture accounts for almost 41 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP), 80 percent of exports, and 80 percent of the labour force. Many other economic activities depend on agriculture, including marketing, processing, and export of agricultural products. Production is overwhelmingly by small-scale farmers and enterprises and a large part of commodity exports are provided by the small agricultural cash-crop sector. Principal crops include coffee, pulses (e.g., beans), oilseeds, cereals, potatoes, sugarcane, and vegetables. Recently, Ethiopia has had a fast growing annual GDP and it was the fastest growing non-oil dependent African nation in 2007. Exports are almost entirely agricultural commodities, and coffee is the largest foreign exchange earner. Ethiopia is Africa's second biggest maize producer. Ethiopia's livestock population is believed to be the largest in Africa, and as of 1987 accounted for about 15 percent of the GDP. Despite recent improvements, the rapidly exploding population means that Ethiopia remains one of the poorest nations in the world. According to a recent UN report the GNP per capita of Ethiopia has reached $160.The same report indicated that the life expectancy had improved substantially in recent years. The life expectancy of men is reported to be 52 and women 54 years.

Exports

Ethiopia was the original source of the coffee bean, and coffee beans are the country's largest export commodity.
Ethiopia is also the 10th largest producer of livestock in the world. Other main export commodities are khat, gold, leather products, and oilseeds. Recent development of the floriculture sector means Ethiopia is poised to become one of the top flower and plant exporters in the world.
With the private sector growing slowly, designer leather products like bags are becoming a big export business making them the first luxury designer label in the country. Additional small-scale export products include cereals, pulses, cotton, sugarcane, potatoes and hides. With the construction of various new dams and growing hydroelectric power projects around the country, it has also begun exporting electric power to its neighbors. However, coffee remains its most important export product and with new trademark deals around the world, including recent deals with Starbucks, the country plans to increase its revenue from coffee. Most regard Ethiopia's large water resources and potential as its "white oil" and its coffee resources as "black gold".
The country also has large mineral resources and oil potential in some the less inhabited regions; however, political instability in those regions has harmed progress. Ethiopian geologists were implicated in a major gold swindle in 2008. Four chemists and geologists from the Ethiopian Geological Survey were arrested in connection with a fake gold scandal, following complaints from buyers in South Africa. Gold bars from the National Bank of Ethiopia were found to be gilded metal by police, costing the state around US$17 million, according to the Science and Development Network website. http://www.scidev.net/en/sub-suharan-africa/news/sub-saharan-africa-news-in-brief-13-25-march.html

Demographics

There are 1.2 million Ethiopians in the US as part of the Ethiopian diaspora.

Religion

According to the most recent 1994 National Census, but the US State department has contradictory figures, putting Islam as being about equal or a slight majority, so a review of the figures might be needed (Sunnis Islam=45%-50%, Orthodoxy= 40%, Protestant 5% and the rest traditional). Orthodox Christianity has a dominant presence in central and northern Ethiopia, while both Orthodox & Protestant Christianity has large representations in the South and Western Ethiopia. A small ancient group of Jews, the Beta Israel, live in northwestern Ethiopia, though most have emigrated to Israel in the last decades of the twentieth century as part of the rescue missions undertaken by the Israeli government, Operation Moses and Operation Solomon. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/ejhist.html Some Israeli and Jewish scholars consider these Ethiopian Jews as the historical "Lost Tribe of Israel". Sometimes Christianity in Africa is thought of as a European import that arrived with colonialism, but this is not the case with Ethiopia. The Kingdom of Aksum was one of the first nations to officially adopt Christianity, when St. Frumentius of Tyre, called Fremnatos or Abba Selama ("Father of Peace") in Ethiopia, converted King Ezana during the fourth century AD. Many believe that the Gospel had entered Ethiopia even earlier, with the royal official described as being baptised by Philip the Evangelist in chapter eight of the Acts of the Apostles. (Acts 8:26-39) Today, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, part of Oriental Orthodoxy, is by far the largest denomination, though a number of Protestant (Pentay) churches and the Ethiopian Orthodox Tehadeso Church have recently gained ground. Since the eighteenth century there has existed a relatively small Uniate Ethiopian Catholic Church in full communion with Rome, with adherents making up less than 1% of the total population. The Bahá'í Faith has been established in Ethiopia since the 1950s, and today is concentrated primarily in Addis Ababa, but also in the suburbs of Yeka, Kirkos and Nefas Silk Lafto.

Health

According to the head of the World Bank's Global HIV/AIDS Program, Ethiopia has only 1 medical doctor per 100,000 people. However, the World Health Organization in its 2006 World Health Report gives a figure of 1936 physicians (for 2003), which comes to about 2.6 per 100,000. Globalization is said to affect the country, with many educated professionals leaving Ethiopia for a better economic opportunity in the West.
Ethiopia's main health problems are said to be communicable diseases caused by poor sanitation and malnutrition. These problems are exacerbated by the shortage of trained manpower and health facilities.
There are 119 hospitals (12 in Addis Ababa alone) and 412 health centers in Ethiopia.

Education

Education in Ethiopia has been dominated by the Orthodox Church for many centuries until secular education was adopted in the early 1900s. The elites, mostly Christians and central ethnic Amhara population, had the most privilege until 1974, when the government tried to reach the rural areas. In fact, until right now, it is only the elite Christians who have better chance to higher education. Languages other than Amharic are supressed. Oromo, for example wasn't allowed in the educational institutions. The current system follows very similar school expansion schemes to the rural areas as the previous 1980s system with an addition of deeper regionalisation giving rural education in their own languages starting at the elementary level and with more budget allocated to the Education Sector. The sequence of general education in Ethiopia is six years of primary school, four years of lower secondary school and two years of higher secondary school.

Cuisine

The best known Ethiopian cuisine consists of various vegetable or meat side dishes and entrees, usually a wat, or thick stew, served atop injera, a large sourdough flatbread. One does not eat with utensils, but instead uses injera to scoop up the entrees and side dishes. Tihlo prepared from roasted barley flour is very popular in Amhara, Agame, and Awlaelo (Tigrai). Traditional Ethiopian cuisine employs no pork or shellfish of any kind, as they are forbidden in the Islamic, Jewish, and Ethiopian Orthodox Christian faiths. It is also very common to eat from the same big dish in the center of the table with a group of people.

Peoples and Languages

Nations, Nationalities and Peoples

Languages

Ethiopia has eighty-four indigenous languages. Some of these are: English is the most widely spoken foreign language and is the medium of instruction in secondary schools. Amharic was the language of primary school instruction, but has been replaced in many areas by local languages such as Oromifa and Tigrinya. Ethiopia has its own alphabet, called Ge'ez or Ethiopic (ግዕዝ), and calendar.

References

Bibliography

  • A History of Modern Ethiopia, 1855–1974
  • My Life and Ethiopia's Progress: The Autobiography of Emperor Haile Selassie I
  • Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia
  • The Life and Times of Menelik II: Ethiopia, 1844–1913 Reprint, Trenton, NJ: Red Sea, 1995. ISBN 1569020094.
  • A History of Ethiopia
  • Haile Selassie's War Reprint, New York: Olive Branch, 2003. ISBN 1902669533.
  • Pankhurst, Richard.
  • The Survival of Ethiopian Independence
Ethiopia in Afrikaans: Ethiopië
Ethiopia in Tosk Albanian: Äthiopien
Ethiopia in Amharic: ኢትዮጵያ
Ethiopia in Arabic: إثيوبيا
Ethiopia in Aragonese: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Official Aramaic (700-300 BCE): ܟܘܫ
Ethiopia in Franco-Provençal: Ètiopie
Ethiopia in Asturian: Etiopía
Ethiopia in Azerbaijani: Efiopiya
Ethiopia in Bengali: ইথিওপিয়া
Ethiopia in Min Nan: Ityop'iya
Ethiopia in Belarusian: Эфіопія
Ethiopia in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Этыёпія
Ethiopia in Central Bicolano: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Tibetan: ཨའེ་ཟི་འོ་པི་ཡ
Ethiopia in Bosnian: Etiopija
Ethiopia in Breton: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Bulgarian: Етиопия
Ethiopia in Catalan: Etiòpia
Ethiopia in Cebuano: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Czech: Etiopie
Ethiopia in Welsh: Ethiopia
Ethiopia in Danish: Etiopien
Ethiopia in German: Äthiopien
Ethiopia in Dhivehi: ޙަބުޝްކަރަ
Ethiopia in Estonian: Etioopia
Ethiopia in Modern Greek (1453-): Αιθιοπία
Ethiopia in Spanish: Etiopía
Ethiopia in Esperanto: Etiopio
Ethiopia in Basque: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Persian: اتیوپی
Ethiopia in French: Éthiopie
Ethiopia in Irish: An Aetóip
Ethiopia in Manx: Yn Eetoip
Ethiopia in Scottish Gaelic: An Itiop
Ethiopia in Galician: Etiopía - Ityop'iya
Ethiopia in Korean: 에티오피아
Ethiopia in Armenian: Եթովպիա
Ethiopia in Upper Sorbian: Etiopiska
Ethiopia in Croatian: Etiopija
Ethiopia in Ido: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Igbo: Ethiopia
Ethiopia in Iloko: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Bishnupriya: ইথিওপিয়া
Ethiopia in Indonesian: Ethiopia
Ethiopia in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Ethiopia
Ethiopia in Interlingue: Ethiopia
Ethiopia in Ossetian: Эфиопи
Ethiopia in Icelandic: Eþíópía
Ethiopia in Italian: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Hebrew: אתיופיה
Ethiopia in Javanese: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Pampanga: Ethiopia
Ethiopia in Kannada: ಇತಿಯೋಪಿಯ
Ethiopia in Georgian: ეთიოპია
Ethiopia in Kazakh: Ефиопия
Ethiopia in Cornish: Ethiopi
Ethiopia in Kirghiz: Эфиопия
Ethiopia in Swahili (macrolanguage): Ethiopia
Ethiopia in Kongo: Itiopia
Ethiopia in Haitian: Etyopi
Ethiopia in Ladino: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Latin: Aethiopia
Ethiopia in Latvian: Etiopija
Ethiopia in Luxembourgish: Ethiopien
Ethiopia in Lithuanian: Etiopija
Ethiopia in Ligurian: Etiòpia
Ethiopia in Limburgan: Ethiopië
Ethiopia in Lingala: Etiopi
Ethiopia in Lojban: itiopiat
Ethiopia in Hungarian: Etiópia
Ethiopia in Macedonian: Етиопија
Ethiopia in Malagasy: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Malayalam: എത്യോപ്യ
Ethiopia in Marathi: इथियोपिया
Ethiopia in Malay (macrolanguage): Habsyah
Ethiopia in Nauru: Ethiopia
Ethiopia in Dutch: Ethiopië
Ethiopia in Japanese: エチオピア
Ethiopia in Norwegian: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Norwegian Nynorsk: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Novial: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Occitan (post 1500): Etiopia
Ethiopia in Oromo: Ethiopia
Ethiopia in Uzbek: Efiopiya
Ethiopia in Pushto: اېتوپيا
Ethiopia in Piemontese: Etiòpia
Ethiopia in Low German: Äthiopien
Ethiopia in Polish: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Portuguese: Etiópia
Ethiopia in Crimean Tatar: Abeşistan
Ethiopia in Romanian: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Romansh: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Quechua: Ithiyupya
Ethiopia in Russian: Эфиопия
Ethiopia in Northern Sami: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Sanskrit: ईथ्योपिया
Ethiopia in Albanian: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Sicilian: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Simple English: Ethiopia
Ethiopia in Silesian: Etjopja
Ethiopia in Slovak: Etiópia
Ethiopia in Church Slavic: Еѳїопїꙗ
Ethiopia in Slovenian: Etiopija
Ethiopia in Somali: Itoobiya
Ethiopia in Serbian: Етиопија
Ethiopia in Serbo-Croatian: Etiopija
Ethiopia in Finnish: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Swedish: Etiopien
Ethiopia in Tagalog: Ethiopia
Ethiopia in Tamil: எதியோப்பியா
Ethiopia in Thai: ประเทศเอธิโอเปีย
Ethiopia in Vietnamese: Ethiopia
Ethiopia in Tigrinya: ኢትዮጵያ
Ethiopia in Tajik: Этиупия
Ethiopia in Turkish: Etiyopya
Ethiopia in Ukrainian: Ефіопія
Ethiopia in Urdu: ایتھوپیا
Ethiopia in Venetian: Etiopia
Ethiopia in Volapük: Lätiopän
Ethiopia in Wolof: Ecoopi
Ethiopia in Tsonga: Ethiopia
Ethiopia in Yiddish: עטיאפיע
Ethiopia in Yoruba: Ethiopia
Ethiopia in Contenese: 埃塞俄比亞
Ethiopia in Dimli: Etyopya
Ethiopia in Samogitian: Etiopėjė
Ethiopia in Chinese: 埃塞俄比亚
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